Autoimmunity may be triggered and mitochondrial harm caused by exposure to water and mould-damaged indoor environments. Patients who have been exposed to mould have been found to have high anti-mitochondrial antibody levels. By causing oxidative stress or altering DNA and RNA, mould-produced mycotoxins can cause mitochondrial dysfunction. Additionally connected to juvenile acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS), mould exposure can exacerbate PANS symptoms already present. So it's conceivable that exposure to mould can result in mitochondrial issues.
The majority of the chemical energy required to fuel cellular processes and biological activities is produced by mitochondria, which are crucial because they are the powerhouses of the cell. They are in charge of creating the ATP that cells use as an energy source. Other crucial jobs performed by mitochondria include generating molecules that communicate to cells and controlling calcium levels. We wouldn't be able to live without mitochondria.
A wide range of health issues and symptoms can result from improper mitochondrial activity. These include exhaustion, lassitude, convulsions, cardiomyopathy, intellectual or developmental disabilities, diabetes mellitus, a decline in hearing, vision, growth, liver, gastrointestinal, or renal function. Excessive tiredness and other symptoms can also be caused by mitochondrial dysfunction. Numerous human pathologies, including cardiovascular illnesses and neurological problems, are linked to mitochondrial dysfunction.
Exhaustion, cramps in the muscles, loss of breath, blurred vision, and neurological impairment are signs of mitochondrial malfunction brought on by mould exposure. Anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA) at high amounts have been linked to mould and moisture exposure. Oocyte degeneration and meiotic failure in females have been linked to exposure to the mycotoxin ochratoxin A, which is generated by moulds. Pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS), which can result in symptoms like anxiety, depression, and behavioral changes, has also been related to mould exposure. However, depending on the person and the severity of the exposure, the precise symptoms of mitochondrial dysfunction brought on by mould exposure may change.
There are several ways to identify mitochondrial disease. These include genetic diagnostic testing, genetic or biochemical analyses of tissues that have been impacted, such as the muscle or liver, and other biochemical markers based on blood or urine. Neurological complaints can also be treated with spectroscopy or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Another technique to directly observe mitochondrial alterations in muscle or other tissue, such as the liver, is biopsy testing. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood studies are also used to make a preliminary diagnosis of mitochondrial diseases.
Depending on the person and the severity of the exposure, the time it takes for symptoms to show after mould exposure can vary. When exposed to mould, some individuals may react right away while others may not exhibit symptoms for days, weeks, or even months. Symptoms typically start to manifest 2 to 9 hours after contact and last for 1 to 3 days, according to the CDC. However, long-term mould exposure may cause a person's symptoms to linger. The duration of mould exposure symptoms relies on a number of variables, including immune system health, allergies, and chronic illnesses.
Because mitochondrial dysfunction can cause chronic inflammation and epidermis thinning, which are characteristics associated with damaged mitochondria, skin issues may be a symptom of mitochondrial dysfunction. The wide range of presenting symptoms of mitochondrial disease includes a variety of other symptoms, such as pigmented skin eruptions and abnormal hair.
Fusarium species create type A trichothecene mycotoxins like T-2. T-2 toxin contaminates wheat, barley, corn, and rice, endangering humans and animals. Toxins affect human and animal digestive, immune, neural, and reproductive systems. This toxic is also toxic to skin. This in vitro study examined T-2 toxicity on human skin fibroblast Hs68 cell line mitochondria. This study first examined T-2 toxin's impact on cell mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). T-2 toxin caused dose- and time-dependent MMP decreases in cells. T-2 toxin did not impact Hs68 cell ROS changes. T-2 toxin reduced cell mtDNA copies dose- and time-dependently. T-2 toxin genotoxicity damaging mtDNA was assessed. In a dose- and time-dependent way, Hs68 cells incubated with T-2 toxin increased mtDNA damage in both ND1 and ND5 regions. (ND5). In conclusion, T-2 toxin damages Hs68 cell mitochondria in vitro. We need to be very aware that anyone in a water damaged building who suffers from unexpected skin irritation, may be reacting to the Fusarium toxin, T-2.
Trichothecene mycotoxin T-2 is produced by Fusarium fungus like Fusarium spp., Myrothecium, and Stachybotrys. The second-most significant Fusarium toxin, T-2 mycotoxin, is poisonous to humans. High amounts of type-A trichothecenes HT-2 and T-2 toxins are produced by the fungus Fusarium langsethiae, according to research.
T-2 mycotoxin exposure can have a variety of negative health impacts. Anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and bloody or watery diarrhea with cramping abdominal discomfort can all be symptoms of gastrointestinal exposure. Inhalational exposure may result in rhinorrhea, epistaxis, sneezing, discomfort, and itching in the nose. Dyspnea, wheezing, coughing, and blood-tinged phlegm can all be signs of pulmonary and tracheobronchial toxicity. According to numerous studies, the toxic impacts of T-2 toxin cause enteritis, abomasal and ruminal ulcers, bloody feces, and death. Other signs and symptoms include coughing, wheezing, chest discomfort, and spitting up blood, as well as weakness, shock, and death.
After experiencing water damage, it's crucial to have your house tested for mould and mycotoxins because moulds have the potential to be harmful to your health. Moulds create irritants, allergens, and potentially toxic substances (mycotoxins) that, when inhaled or touched, can trigger allergic reactions in people with sensitivity. If mould is a problem in your house, get rid of it right away and take care of the sewage issue. As part of regular building maintenance, it's also advised to check buildings for visible mould and signs of water damage. Testing for mycotoxin and mould toxins may be helpful in some circumstances, especially where there is suspicions about the link between exposure and adverse health or where there is another party to the property who maintains there is no risk and when independent testing and verification is needed to settle the dispute.
Janik-Karpinska, E.; Ceremuga, M.; Niemcewicz, M.; Synowiec,E.;Sliwin ́ski,T.;Bijak,M. Mitochondrial Damage Induced by T-2 Mycotoxin on Human Skin—Fibroblast Hs68 Cell Line. Molecules2023,28,2408. https:// doi.org/10.3390/molecules28052408
D'mello, J. P. Felix et al. “Fusarium mycotoxins: a review of global implications for animal health, welfare and productivity.” Animal Feed Science and Technology 80 (1999): 183-205. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(99)00059-0
Duarte-Hospital, Carolina et al. “Mitochondrial Dysfunction as a Hallmark of Environmental Injury.” Cells 11 (2021): n. pag. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/d4ef/be0d1efddfb1137011c693b6fbc20523021e.pdf